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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 156-163

Analgesic and Sedative Effects of Piroxicam, Ketamine and Lidocaine Combined With Local Anesthesia for Canine Bone Marrow Aspiration


1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, P.O. Box: 115, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Fatemeh Heydarpour
Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Dogs as a valuable large animal model display important roles for investigation of diagnosis and treatment of different disorders of human diseases such as pain relieving procedures. Analgesic efficacy of preoperative administration of piroxicam, ketamine and lidocaine combined with local anesthesia for management of intra and early post-operative pain in the three equal groups of dogs undergoing bone marrow aspiration was evaluated in twenty-four immature female stray dogs that had been referred for FNA technique. Some clinical, physiological and biochemical parameters of the animals were studied before and during the three hours after the BMA. In the ketamine group, hyperglycemia was found to be less than piroxicam and lidocaine groups. A maximum increase of heart rate and respiratory rate was recorded 0.5 h after premedication in all the groups and these variations were significantly recorded in the piroxicam group. Immediately after FNA, clear increments of rectal temperature, especially in the piroxicam group, were also seen in all used drug groups. Evaluation of sedation and analgesia results of the present study indicated no analgesic effect of piroxicam in bone marrow FNA and minor sedative effect just immediately before aspiration. Ketamine with its analgesic nature provided more sedation and adequate pain relief due to FNA technique rather than other groups. Therefore, pain therapy can be improved using preoperative sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine combined with local anesthesia for bone marrow FNA in dogs.


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