• Users Online: 158
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 171-181

Herbal nanoemulsion in topical drug delivery and skin disorders: Green approach


1 Department of Pharmaceutics, NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Meerut, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutics, GLA University, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission15-May-2020
Date of Acceptance28-Jul-2021
Date of Web Publication17-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Mrs. Chanchal Chaurasiya
Department of Pharmaceutics, NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, L-342, Shastri Nagar, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrptps.JRPTPS_64_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

A topical drug delivery system can be a future trend for drug delivery because of the availability of the largest surface area of skin than any other organ. Although the skin has some advantages such as ease of application, patient compliance, and safety, it has many disadvantages such as permeability and bioavailability via first-pass metabolism and others. Nanoemulsion can be a future trend for topical delivery of drugs because of its very fine droplet size range, lipophilic and/or hydrophilic nature, and suitability for various administration routes such as parenteral, oral, topical, intranasal, ocular, and pulmonary. The contents of nanoemulsions make them suitable for human use because the oil/lipid, water, surfactants, and co-surfactants used in the formulation of nanoemulsion are relatively safe and nontoxic. Nowadays, people are more attracted to natural preparations as of their inherited qualities and fewer side effects. Due to herbal drugs’ compatibility in nanoemulsion, it is considered the best technology for the green approach of the medicine system. The article presented the foundation for the above statement by different literature surveys on the herbal nanoemulsion formulations.

Keywords: Co-surfactant, greens, nanoemulsion, surfactant, topical delivery


How to cite this article:
Chaurasiya C, Gupta J, Kumar S. Herbal nanoemulsion in topical drug delivery and skin disorders: Green approach. J Rep Pharma Sci 2021;10:171-81

How to cite this URL:
Chaurasiya C, Gupta J, Kumar S. Herbal nanoemulsion in topical drug delivery and skin disorders: Green approach. J Rep Pharma Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 19];10:171-81. Available from: https://www.jrpsjournal.com/text.asp?2021/10/2/171/332786


  Introduction Top


Human skin is a stratified epithelium, covering 1.6 m2 of surface region and representing roughly 16% of a grown-up’s body weight and consist of a different cell type that performs a distinct function. In direct contact with the outside condition, the skin assists with keeping up four basic body functions: (1) maintenance of dampness and counteraction of pervasion or loss of different molecules, (2) maintenance of body temperature, (3) assurance of the body from organisms and destructive outer impacts, and (4) sensation.[1]

The skin may be comprehensively partitioned into the outer epidermis, dermis, and undermost hypodermis [Figure 1]. In addition, the epidermis can be divided from outside to within into stratum corneum (horny layer), stratum granulosum (granular layer), stratum spinosum (prickle cell layer), and stratum basale (Stratum germinativum). The stratum basale and spinosum are considered known as the malpighian layer. The additional layer stratum lucidum can be seen on the part of the body with thickened skin example, the palm and bottom of the foot. The hair follicle and sweat glands cross different skin layers.[2]
Figure 1: Structure of skin[3]

Click here to view


Skin is the primary course of the topical drug delivery system. Skin disease affects the population and has been cited as one of the top 15 ailments for which prevalence and medical service expanded in the most recent decade.[4] Improvement in the biological sciences with an increasing dermatological market increases the advent of batter topical formulations. Topical drug delivery systems include a wide range of pharmaceutical dosage forms such as solid powders, semisolids, liquids, and sprays preparations. Gels, creams, and ointments are mostly used in semisolid preparation for topical drug delivery. There are the following advantages associated with topical drug delivery systems:[5]

  • Patient acceptance and compliance,


  • Ease of application,


  • Noninvasive and painless method of administration,


  • Improved drug bioavailability,


  • Good pharmacological and physiological responses


  • Minimum systemic toxicity


  • Minimum exposure of the drug to non-infectious tissue sites.


  • In addition to the advantages elucidated here, the major challenge in topical delivery is the permeability of the drug across skin and bioavailability profile. Nanoemulsions have been developed to defeat debilitated drug permeation following the topical application as shown in [Figure 2].[6],[7]
    Figure 2: Topical absorption of conventional dosage form and nanoemulsion

    Click here to view


    In addition, as an emulsion, either o/w or w/o is scattering of two liquids that are immiscible, stabilized by using a suitable surface active agent, the nano suffixed for its mean droplet size radius achieved in normally less than 500 nm.[8],[9]

    Nanoemulsions may be formulated in a variety of delivery forms, such as oils, creams, sprays, gels, aerosols, foams, and may be administered uniformly through different routes, such as topical, dental, intravenous, intranasal, pulmonary, and ocular.[10],[11]

    [TAG:2]Advantages of Nanoemulsions[12][/TAG:2]

  • Because of the nanosize and wide interfacial area of the droplets, there is an improvement in solubility, dissolution, absorption, permeation, and bioavailability.


  • The physical stability of herbal bioactive can be improved by encapsulation into the nanoemulsion matrix.


  • As oils/lipids are compatible with the body, quickly metabolized, and nontoxic, the nanoemulsions are safe for human health.


  • Allows a targeted and sustained transfer of active molecules.


  • Toxic effects of the drug can be minimized due to a reduction in dose and provide better therapeutic effects.


  • Due to their solubilization and transportation ability of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic active compounds with unusual physical properties, nanoemulsion has been the subject of extensive research globally.[13]


  • It improves plasma drug concentration because it avoids first-pass metabolisms.


  • Provides value-added nutraceutical and dietary supplement distribution system.


  • Improve patient compliance.



  •   Formulation of Nanoemulsion Top


    1. Oils: O/W nanoemulsions consist of 5%–20% oil/lipid as disperse phase, even sometimes it may be more significant up to 70%. Lipids/oil used in nanoemulsions is usually based on the solubility of the drug.[14] It helps to facilitate emulsification to increase the solubility of the water-insoluble drug in the oil droplets. It also improves the absorption of the oral drug by increasing the gastrointestinal drug permeation through the intestinal lymphatic. For topical formulations, it functions as a penetration enhancer that facilitates drug permeation in the skin.[15],[16]


    2. Surfactants: Surfactants are the agent that minimizes the interfacial tension of oil and water and act as the emulsifier in the formulation of nanoemulsion. They rapidly adsorb on the oil and water interface and provides steric or electrostatic, or double electro-steric stability. HLB value plays an integral part in the selection of appropriate surfactants. 30–60% v/v concentration of surfactant is used to produce a stable emulsion.[17],[18] Lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is derived from egg yolk or soybean and is used as a common surfactant used in nanoemulsions.[19]


    3. Cosurfactants: Cosurfactants are used to increase the effectiveness of surfactants. It should be used in smaller concentrations owing to its adverse side effects at greater concentrations.[20],[21]


    4. Stabilizers: Different kind of stabilizers is used to overcome the instability issues of nanoemulsion such as flocculation, coalescence, Ostwald ripening, and gravitational separation.[21] The contents of nanoemulsion are summarized in [Figure 3].
    Figure 3: Contents of nanoemulsion

    Click here to view



      Green Approach Top


    The importance of herbal drugs and formulations is increased worldwide for all sorts of diseases. People are well aware of the ingredients, therapeutic and medicinal properties of the ingredients of their daily diet. Plants have a no. of very beneficial bioactive compounds, which work as a backbone of the conventional medicine system. Numerous sorts of diseases have been known to be treated with natural cures. This action is because of the presence of phytochemical components such as glycosides, tannins, alcohols, and aldehydes. People are attracted to the herbal medicine system because of its fewer side effects and low-toxicity profile.

    Because of the quick staged way of life and polluted environment, individuals are presented with numerous ways of life, particularly skin diseases.[22]

    Examples of few herbs that are effective in some diseases are given in [Table 1].[21],[22]
    Table 1: Examples of therapeutically useful herbs

    Click here to view



      Importance of Nanoemulsion in Delivery of Herbal Drugs Top


  • Either the most recent decades, it has become a pushed region of research for some specialists and trailblazers all through the world because of their medical advantages; however, the pharmaceutical use of natural bioactive and phytopharmaceuticals is restricted with low solubility, permeability, and bioavailability. It has become the most significant obstacle for the effective use of natural bioactive against different health complications. These hurdles can be solved with the formulation of nanoemulsion of herbal drugs.[23] Nanoemulsion is considered the best technology because of its:[24]


  • Damp or smooth behavior,


  • Eminent interaction with the skin cells,


  • Small droplet dimension,


  • Efficient permeability,


  • Protection


  • Capability to convey volatile, irritant, and high molecular weight drugs evenly.


  • Nanoemulsions easily associate with the skin cells due to their fluidic behavior and emulsifier properties at the interface.


  • Nanoemulsion leads to provide better efficacy and interaction due to surface charge over nanoemulsion.



  •   Formulation and Development of Herbal Nanoemulsion Top


    Prior to the production of a quality nanoemulsion product, it is necessary to note the choice of ingredients, their correct concentration, an order of addition, proper preparation method, optimum stirring speed, and shear stress. There are several techniques that are used for the preparation of nanoemulsion [Figure 4]:[25]
    Figure 4: Methods of preparation of nanoemulsion

    Click here to view



      High-Energy Methods Top


    The method is called high energy because it uses high mechanical energy using no mechanical devices such as ultrasonicators, microfluidizers, and high-pressure homogenizers to provide strong disruptive forces, which breaks large size droplets into nanosized droplets and produce nanoemulsions with high kinetic energy.[26],[27] High-energy methods provide better control of particle size with a choice of formulation composition, stability, rheology, and color of the emulsion.[28] High-energy methods contain a no of methods that are given below.

    High-pressure homogenization

    High-pressure homogenization creates intense turbulence and shear flow to the nanoemulsion mixture under very high pressure, resulting in the breakage of the dispersed phase into small droplets, that is, less than 100–1 nm. The relative flux between the droplets governs the dynamic equilibrium between breakage and coalescence, due to which homogenous droplets with better shelf life and texture characteristics are produced.[29]

    Microfluidization

    Microfluidization is a high-pressure homogenization technique used to develop a highly dispersed system. A microfluidizer co-existently uses hydraulic shear, impact, attrition, impingement, intense turbulence, and cavitation for effective size reduction. It forces feed material through an interaction chamber consisting of microchannels under the influence of a high-pressure displacement pump (500–50,000 psi), which results in the formation of very fine droplets.[30],[31] Precarious and finest nanoemulsion particles are produced in microfluidizers than homogenizers and produce stable nanoemulsions at low surfactant concentrations.[32],[33]

    Ultrasonication

    Ultrasonicator is used in this method to convert macroemulsion into nanoemulsion. Ultrasonicator is consists of a probe that emits ultrasonic waves. The desired particle size and stability of nanoemulsion is achieved by varying ultrasonic energy input and time. In ultrasonication, the acoustic cavitation process is used to provide physical shear. Cavitation is a process of the development and growth of microbubbles, accompanied by the collapsing of microbubbles, caused by pressure changes in the acoustic wave. The formation of nanosized droplets results from the intense turbulence caused by the collapse of microbubbles.[34],[35]


      Low-Energy Methods Top


    Low-energy emulsification methods use the system’s intrinsic chemical energy and require delicate mixing for the preparation of the nanoemulsions.[36],[37]

    Phase inversion emulsification method

    spontaneous surfactant curvature occurs by changes in variables such as temperature and composition induces phase transition in the process of emulsification.[38] Phase inversion emulsification methods are of two types: transitional phase inversion (TPI) methods, which involve phase inversion temperature (PIT) method and phase inversion composition (PIC), and continuous phase inversion (CPI) methods, which involve emulsion inversion point (EIP).

    TPI happens due to the changes in random curvature or orientation of the surfactant due to variation in the variables such as temperature and composition.[39],[40] However, CPI occurs when the scattered phase is gradually inserted as the scattered phase droplets are collated together to create bicontinuous/lamellar structural phases.[36] In the PIT method, the curvature of the surfactant is reversed by altering temperature. The PIC method is identical to the PIT method; however, in PIC, inversion is accomplished by adjusting the system composition instead of the system temperature.[37] In PIC, one element such as water is introduced to the mixture, and oil/lipid -surfactant or oil/lipid is added to the water-surfactant mixture. In the EIP method, phase inversion occurs through CPI mechanisms. The catastrophic phase inversion is caused due to change in the fractioned volume of the dispersed phase instead of the properties of the surfactant.[38]

    Self-nanoemulsification method

    Formation of nanoemulsion formation without changing the spontaneous curvature of the surfactant is achieved in the self-emulsification method. Surface active agents and/or co-solvent molecules are quickly diffuse from the scattered phase to the continuous phase, which triggers turbulence and generates nanosized emulsion droplets.[35],[36]


      Successful Topical Herbal Nanoemulsion Formulations Top


    With the help of literature, numbers of successful herbal nanoemulsion formulations were found and presented, as shown in [Table 2].{Table 2}


      Conclusion Top


    With a number of skin functions, there are a few significant challenges in drug delivery through the topical route. Nanoemulsion defeats these limitations and is found to be one of the best formulations for topical drug delivery, and nanoemulsion can also be formulated in a variety of delivery forms. In the era of allopathic medicines, people are attracted to green approaches because of varying and favorable qualities to use in many pathological and physiological health conditions. The study results and exemplifies that an herbal drug’s nanoemulsions can become the future fashion for both therapeutic and non-therapeutic applications[69].

    Financial support and sponsorship

    Nil.

    Conflicts of interest

    There are no conflicts of interest.



     
      References Top

    1.
    Nakagawa H. Dermatological disorders. In: Nakagawa H, editor. Symphonia Medica Nursing. Vol. 19. Nakayama-Shoten; 2001.Berlin, Heidelberg: Verlag. p 3-17.  Back to cited text no. 1
        
    2.
    Ng KW, Lau WM. Skin deep: The basics of human skin structure and drug penetration. In: Dragicevic N, Maibach HI, editors. Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Chemical Methods in Penetration Enhancement: Drug Manipulation Strategies and Vehicle Effects. Springer; 2015. p. 3-11.  Back to cited text no. 2
        
    3.
    Neupane R, Boddu SHS, Renukuntla J, Babu RJ, Tiwari AK. Alternatives to biological skin in permeation studies: Current trends and possibilities. Pharmaceutics 2020;12:152.  Back to cited text no. 3
        
    4.
    Debjit B, Harish G, Pragati KB, Duraive S, Kumar K, Sampath P. Recent advances in novel topical drug delivery system. Pharma Innov 2012;1:12-26.  Back to cited text no. 4
        
    5.
    Joshi M, Butola BS, Saha K. Advances in topical drug delivery system: Micro to nanofibrous structures. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2014;14:853-67.  Back to cited text no. 5
        
    6.
    Heuschkel S, Goebel A, Neubert RH. Microemulsions: Modern colloidal carrier for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. J Pharm Sci 2008;97:603-31.  Back to cited text no. 6
        
    7.
    Singh M, Jain S. Nanoemulsions for skin targeting: Present status and future prospects. Drug Deliv Lett 2011;1:159.  Back to cited text no. 7
        
    8.
    Aboofazeli R. Nanometric-scaled emulsions (Nanoemulsions), Iran. J. Pharm. Res.: IJPR 2010;9:325-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
        
    9.
    Shakeel F, Ramadan W, Faisal MS, Rizwan M, Faiyazuddin M, Mustafa G, et al. Transdermal and topical delivery of anti-inflammatory agents using nanoemulsion/microemulsion: An updated review. Curr Nanosci 2010;6:184.  Back to cited text no. 9
        
    10.
    Yuvraj S, Gopal MJ, Kavit R, Ali KF, Mohini C, Jain Nitin K, et al. Nanoemulsion: Concepts, development and applications in drug delivery. J Control Rel 2017;252:28-49.  Back to cited text no. 10
        
    11.
    Yukuyama MN, Myiake Kato ET, Lobenberg R, Bou-Chacra NA. Challenges and future prospects of nanoemulsion as a drug delivery system. Curr Pharm Des 2017;23:495.  Back to cited text no. 11
        
    12.
    Jaiswal M, Dudhe R, Sharma PK. Nanoemulsion: An advanced mode of drug delivery system. Biotech 2015;5:123-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
        
    13.
    Lu Y, Qi J, Wu W. Absorption, disposition and pharmacokinetics of nanoemulsions. Curr Drug Metab 2012;13:396-417.  Back to cited text no. 13
        
    14.
    Jiang S-P, He S-N, Li Y-L, Feng D-L, Lu X-Y, Du Y-Z, et al. Preparation and characteristics of lipid nanoemulsion formulations loaded with doxorubicin. Int J Nanomed 2013;8:3141-50.  Back to cited text no. 14
        
    15.
    Constantinides PP. Lipid microemulsions for improving drug dissolution and oral absorption: Physical and biopharmaceutical aspects. Pharm Res (N. Y.) 1995;12:1561-72.  Back to cited text no. 15
        
    16.
    Lawrence MJ, Rees GD. Microemulsion based media as a novel drug delivery system. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2002;45:89-121.  Back to cited text no. 16
        
    17.
    Wakerly MG, Pouton CW, Meakin BJ, Morton FS. Self-emulsification of vegetable oil nonionic surfactant mixture: A proposed mechanism of action. ACS Symp Ser 1986;311:242-55.  Back to cited text no. 17
        
    18.
    Craig DQM, Barker SA, Banning D, Booth SW. An investigation into the mechanisms of self-emulsification using particle size analysis and low frequency dielectric spectroscopy. Int J Pharm 1995;114:103-10.  Back to cited text no. 18
        
    19.
    Klang V, Valenta C. Lecithin-based nanoemulsions. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2011;21:55-76.  Back to cited text no. 19
        
    20.
    Attwood D. Microemulsions. In: Kreuter J., editor. Colloidal Drug Delivery Systems. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1994. p. 31-71.  Back to cited text no. 20
        
    21.
    Lawrence MJ. Surfactant systems: Microemulsions and vesicles as vehicles for drug delivery. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1994;3:257-69.  Back to cited text no. 21
        
    22.
    Joyce Nirmala M, Nagarajan R. Recent research trends in fabrication and applications of plant essential oil based nanoemulsions. J. Nanomed Nanotechnol2017;8:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 22
        
    23.
    Walter TM , Sasi Priya T, Shakthi Paargavi A, Priya Devi NS, Thanalakshmi S. A Review of herbs to treat skin disorders in traditional siddha medicine. Res Rev: J Pharmacol Toxicol Stud2014;2:7-14.  Back to cited text no. 23
        
    24.
    Muthaliar M. Siddha Materia Medica (Vegetable section). Vol. I, 4th ed. Chennai: Tamilnadu Siddha Medical Council; 1988.  Back to cited text no. 24
        
    25.
    The Wealth of India. Publication and Information Directorate. New Delhi: CSIR; 1985. p. 281.  Back to cited text no. 25
        
    26.
    Singh MBR, Kumar SA, Prakash JC. Techniques for formulation of nanoemulsion drug delivery system: A review. Prev Nutr Food Sci 2019;24:225-34.  Back to cited text no. 26
        
    27.
    Mahdi Jafari S, He Y, Bhandari B. Nano-emulsion production by sonication and microfluidization: A comparison. Int J Food Prop 2006;9:475-85.  Back to cited text no. 27
        
    28.
    Gonçalves A, Nikmaram N, Roohinejad S, Estevinho BN, Rocha F, Greiner R. Production, properties, and applications of solid self-emulsifying delivery systems (S-SEDS) in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Aspects 2018;538:108-26.  Back to cited text no. 28
        
    29.
    Graves S, Meleson K, Wilking J, Lin MY, Mason TG. Structure of concentrated nanoemulsions. J Chem Phys 2005;122:134-73.  Back to cited text no. 29
        
    30.
    Hsieh CW, Li PH, Lu IC, Wang TH. Preparing glabridin-in-water nanoemulsions by high pressure homogenization with response surface methodology. J Oleo Sci2012;61:483-9.  Back to cited text no. 30
        
    31.
    Aguilera JM, Stanley DW. Microstructural Principles of Food Processing and Engineering. New York: Springer Science & Business Media; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 31
        
    32.
    Perrier-Cornet JM, Marie P, Gervais P. Comparison of emulsification efficiency of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions using jet, high pressure and colloid mill homogenization. J Food Eng 2005;66:211-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
        
    33.
    Pinnamaneni S, Das NG, Das SK. Comparison of oil-in-water emulsions manufactured by microfluidization and homogenization. Pharmazie 2003;58:554-8.  Back to cited text no. 33
        
    34.
    Jayasooriya SD, Bhandari BR, Torley P, D’Arcy BR. Effect of high power ultrasound waves on properties of meat: A review. Int J Food Prop 2004;7:301-9.  Back to cited text no. 34
        
    35.
    Canselier JP, Delmas H, Wilhelm AM, Abismaïl B. Ultrasound emulsification: An overview. J Dispersion Sci Technol 2002;23:333-49.  Back to cited text no. 35
        
    36.
    Solans C, Solé I. Nano-emulsions: Formation by low-energy methods. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2012;17:246-54.  Back to cited text no. 36
        
    37.
    Rajpoot P, Pathak K, Bali V. Therapeutic applications of nanoemulsion based drug delivery systems: A review of patents in last two decades. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul 2011;5:163.  Back to cited text no. 37
        
    38.
    Ishak KA, Annuar MSM. Phase inversion of medium-chain-length poly-3 hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA)-incorporated nanoemulsion: Effects of mcl-PHA molecular weight and amount on its mechanism. Colloid Polym Sci 2016;294:1969-81.  Back to cited text no. 38
        
    39.
    Sokolov YV. Nanoemulsion formation by low-energy methods: A review. Vìsn farm 2014;3:16-9.  Back to cited text no. 39
        
    40.
    Fernandez P, André V, Rieger J, Kühnle A. Nano-emulsion formation by emulsion phase inversion. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Aspects 2004;251:53-8.  Back to cited text no. 40
        
    41.
    Gao W, Jiang Z, Du X, Zhang F, Liu Y, Bai X, et al. Impact of surfactants on nanoemulsions based on fractionated coconut oil: Emulsification stability and in vitro digestion. J Oleo Sci 2020;69:227-39.  Back to cited text no. 41
        
    42.
    Joyce Nirmala M, Durai L, Rao KA, Nagarajan R. Ultrasonic nanoemulsification of Cuminum cyminum essential oil and its applications in medicine. Int J Nanomed 2020;15:795-807.  Back to cited text no. 42
        
    43.
    Sungpud C, PanpipatI W, Chaijan M, Yoon AS. Techno biofunctionality of mangostin extractloaded virgin coconut oil nanoemulsion and nanoemulgel. PLOS One2020;15:1-22.  Back to cited text no. 43
        
    44.
    Maccelli A, Vitanza L, Imbriano A, Fraschetti C, Filippi A, Goldoni P, et al. Essential oils: Chemical profiles/phytochemical screening, antimicrob activity O/W nanoemulsion formulations, Pharmaceutics 2020;12:1-20.  Back to cited text no. 44
        
    45.
    Long Y, Huang W, Wang Q, Yang G. Green synthesis of garlic oil nanoemulsion using ultrasonication technique and its mechanism of antifungal action against Penicillium italicum. Ultrason Sonochem 2020;64:1-59.  Back to cited text no. 45
        
    46.
    Jiang T, Liao W, Charcosset C. Recent advances in encapsulation of curcumin in nanoemulsions: A review of encapsulation technologies, bioaccessibility and applications. Food Res Int 2020;132:1-48.  Back to cited text no. 46
        
    47.
    Li Y, Li M, Qi Y, Zheng L, Wu C, Wang Z, et al. Preparation and digestibility of fish oil nanoemulsions stabilized by soybean protein isolate-phosphatidylcholine. Food Hydrocolloid 2020;100:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 47
        
    48.
    Sharma S, Rabbani SA, Narang JK, Hyder Pottoo F, Ali J, Kumar S, et al. Role of rutin nanoemulsion in ameliorating oxidative stress: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamics studies. Chem Phys Lipid 2020;228:135-42.  Back to cited text no. 48
        
    49.
    Khattab A, Mohamed M, Basalious EB. Design of self-nanoemulsifying system to enhance absorption and bioavailability of poorly permeable Aliskiren hemi-fumarate. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2020;57:1-26.  Back to cited text no. 49
        
    50.
    Elshamy AI, Ammar NM, Hassan HA, Al-Rowaily SL, Ragab TI, El Gendy AE-NG., et al. Essential oil and its nanoemulsion of Araucaria heterophylla resin: Chemical characterization, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities. Indus Crops Prod 2020;148:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 50
        
    51.
    Fasolo D, Pippi B, Meirelles G, Zorzi G, Fuentefria AM, von Poser G, et al. Topical delivery of antifungal Brazilian red propolis benzophenones-rich extract by means of cationic lipid nanoemulsions optimized by means of Box-Behnken design. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2020;56:1-37.  Back to cited text no. 51
        
    52.
    Kaur A, Gabrani R, Dang S. Nanoemulsions of green tea catechins and other natural compounds for the treatment of urinary tract infection: Antibacterial analysis. Adv Pharm 2019;9:401-8.  Back to cited text no. 52
        
    53.
    Jarz˛ebski M, Fathordoobad F, Guo Y, Xu M, Singh A, Kitts DD., et al. Pea protein for hempseed oil nanoemulsion stabilization. Molecules 2019;24:1-14.  Back to cited text no. 53
        
    54.
    Yousef SA, Mohammed YH, Namjoshi S, Grice JE, Benson HAE, Sakran W, et al. Mechanistic evaluation of enhanced curcumin delivery through human skin in vitro from optimised nanoemulsion formulations fabricated with different penetration enhancers. Pharmaceutics 2019;11:1-20.  Back to cited text no. 54
        
    55.
    Garre A, Espín JF, Huertas J-P, Periago PM, Palop A. Limonene nanoemulsified with soya lecithin reduces the intensity of non-isothermal treatments for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes. Sci Rep 2020;10:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 55
        
    56.
    Wan J, Zhong S, Schwarz P, Chen B, Rao J. Physical properties, antifungal and mycotoxin inhibitory activities of five essential oil nanoemulsions: Impact of oil compositions and processing parameters. Food Chem 2019;291:199-206.  Back to cited text no. 56
        
    57.
    Wan J, Jin Z, Zhong S, Schwarz P, Chen B, Rao J. Clove oil-in-water nanoemulsion mitigates growth of Fusarium graminearum and trichothecene mycotoxin production during the malting of Fusarium infected barley. Food Chem 2019;312:1-37.  Back to cited text no. 57
        
    58.
    Gokhale JP, Mahajan HS, Surana SS. Quercetin loaded nanoemulsion-based gel for rheumatoid arthritis: In vivo and in vitro studies. Biomed Pharm 2019;112:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 58
        
    59.
    Shanmugapriya K, Kim H, Kang HW. A new alternative insight of nanoemulsion conjugated with κ-carrageenan for wound healing study in diabetic mice: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. Eur J Pharm Sci 2019;133:236-50.  Back to cited text no. 59
        
    60.
    Wan J, Zhong S, Schwarz P, Chen B, Rao J. Enhancement of antifungal and mycotoxin inhibitory activities of food grade thyme oil nanoemulsions with natural emulsifiers. Food Control 2019;106:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 60
        
    61.
    Kang ES, Kim HJ, Han SG, Seo HG. Duck Oil-loaded Nanoemulsion Inhibits Senescence of Angiotensin II-treated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Upregulating SIRT1. Food Sci Anim Resour 2020;40:106-17.  Back to cited text no. 61
        
    62.
    Mukerjee A, Pandey H, Tripathi AK, Singh SK. Development, characterization and evaluation of cinnamon oil and usnic acid blended nanoemulsion to attenuate skin carcinogenicity in Swiss albino mice. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2019;20:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 62
        
    63.
    Wang S, Wang X, Liu M, Zhang L, Ge Z, Zhao G, et al. Preparation and characterization of Eucommia ulmoides seed oil O/W nanoemulsion by dynamic high pressure microfluidization. LWT: Food Sci Technol 2020;121:1-39.  Back to cited text no. 63
        
    64.
    Nikolic I, Mitsou E, Pantelic I, Randjelovic D, Markovic B, Papadimitriou V, et al. Microstructure and biopharmaceutical performances of curcumin loaded low-energy nanoemulsions containing eucalyptol and pinene: Terpenes’ role overcome penetration enhancement effect? Eur J Pharm Sci 2019;142:1-46.  Back to cited text no. 64
        
    65.
    Narang JK, Narang RS, Ali J, Baboota S, Nagpal N, Kaur S, et al. Nanoemulsions for Improved Efficacy of Phytotherapeutics: A Patent Perspective. Recent Pat Nanotechnol 2017;11:194.  Back to cited text no. 65
        
    66.
    Ghiasi Z, Esmaeli F, Aghajani M, Ghazi-Khansari M, Ali Faramarzi M, Amani A. Enhancing analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin when loaded into olive oil nanoemulsion: An in vivo study. Int J Pharm 2019;559:341-7.  Back to cited text no. 66
        
    67.
    Limthin D, Phromyothin D. Improving stability of nanoemulsion containing Centella asiatica, Lycopersicon Esculentum Mil. and Moringa oleifera Lam. extract. Mater Today: Proceed 2019;4: 1852-63.  Back to cited text no. 67
        
    68.
    Costa AM, Bueno KTL, da Rosa APC, Costa JAV. The antioxidant activity of nanoemulsions based on lipids and peptides from Spirulina sp. LEB18. LWT 2019;99:173-8.  Back to cited text no. 68
        
    69.
    Islam MT, Streck L, de Alencar MV, Cardoso Silva SW, da Conceição Machado K, da Conceição Machado K, et al. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of phytol and its nanoemulsion. Chemosphere 2017;177:93-101.  Back to cited text no. 69
        


        Figures

      [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
     
     
        Tables

      [Table 1], [Table 2]JRepPharmaSci_2021_10_2_171_332786_t6.jpg



     

    Top
     
     
      Search
     
    Similar in PUBMED
       Search Pubmed for
       Search in Google Scholar for
     Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
    * Registration required (free)

     
      In this article
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Advantages of Na...
    12]
    Formulation of N...
    Green Approach
    Importance of Na...
    Formulation and ...
    High-Energy Methods
    Low-Energy Methods
    Successful Topic...
    Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

     Article Access Statistics
        Viewed288    
        Printed10    
        Emailed0    
        PDF Downloaded84    
        Comments [Add]    

    Recommend this journal


    [TAG2]
    [TAG3]
    [TAG4]